The Bitcoin Segwit2x fork is projected to take place on November 16th and will temporarily result in two bitcoin blockchains. Following the fork, the current bitcoin blockchain will continue trading as Bitcoin (BTC) and the forked blockchain will trade as Bitcoin2x (B2X).
Coinbase is a global digital asset exchange company (GDAX), providing a venue to buy and sell digital currencies, as well as send information about those transactions out to the blockchain network in order to verify those transactions. Read more: Coinbase: What Is It and How Do You Use It? | Investopedia http://www.investopedia.com/tech/coinbase-what-it-and-how-do-you-use-it/#ixzz4x5KXDFWq
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Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based, distributed, smart contract system. Ether is the name for the token/cryptocurrency that is native to Ethereum’s smart contract platform (just like Bitcoin is the token native to Bitcoin’s blockchain)
A hard fork is a term that describes a major change to blockchain protocol which make previously invalid blocks/transactions valid (or vice-versa). This can be used to keep the same coin with major changes to the blockchain, or to create a new coin.
Bitcoins are electronic currency, otherwise known as 'cryptocurrency'. Bitcoins are a form of digital public money that is created by painstaking mathematical computations and policed by millions of computer users called 'miners'.